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Axial Tension
Maximum Size of Bolt Holes
 Nominal Bolt Diameter (mm) Standard Hole Diameter (mm), Oversize Hole Diameter (mm) Short-Slotted Hole (mm) Long-Slotted Hole (mm) d < 12.7 d + 0.8 d + 1.6 (d + 0.8) by (d + 6.4) (d + 0.8) by (2.5d) d ≥ 12.7 d + 1.6 d + 3.2 (d + 1.6) by (d + 6.4) (d + 1.6) by (2.5d)
Tension Member Design

Gross area
Ag = Gross area of cross section.

Net Area
Net area An of a member is the sum of the products of the thickness and the net width of each element.
For a part in any diagonal or zigzag line, the additional quantity is:   s2.t / (4g)

s = longitudinal center-to-center spacing (pitch) of any two consecutive holes.
g = transverse center-to-center spacing (gage) between fastner gage lines.

Effective Net Area, Reduction-Shear Lag Coefficient (U)

Bolts:
Ae = An . U

For angle members having two and more bolts in the line of force:    U = 1 - 1.2 x/L < 0.9,   but >= 0.4

For channel members having two and more bolts in the line of force:    U = 1 - 0.36 x/L < 0.9,   but >= 0.5

x - distance from shear plane to centroid of the cross section

Welds:
(a) When the tension load is transmitted only by longitudinal welds or by longitudinal welds in combination with transverse welds:
Ae = Ag . U

U - reduction coefficient = 1 - x/L <= 0.9
Ag - gross area of member

(b) When the tension load is transmitted only by transverse welds:
Ae = A . U

U = 1.0
A - area of directly connected elements

(c) Otherwise:

for angle members:    U = 1 - 1.2 X/L < 0.9 but U >= 0.4

for channel members:    U = 1 - 0.36 X/L < 0.9 but U >= 0.5

x - distance from shear plane to centroid of cross section
L - length of longitudinal weld

Design Strength for Tension Members:

Yielding in the gross section: (Eq. C2.1-1)

fTn = f.Fy.Ag= 0.90 Fy.Ag

Rupture in the net section: (appendix B, C2.2)

fTn = f. Fu.(Lc. t) = 0.75 Fu.(Lc. t)

1). for failure normal to force due to direct tension
Lc = Lt,     not involving stagger
Lc = 0.9 Ls,     involving stagger

2). for failure parallel to force due to shear
Lc = 0.6 Lnv

3). for failure due to block tear-out at end of member
Lc = Lt + 0.6 Lv,      not involving stagger
Lc = 0.9 (Lt + Ls) + 0.6 Lv,      involving stagger

4). for failure of coped beams
Lc = 0.5 Lt + 0.6 Lv,      not involving stagger
Lc = 0.45 (Lt + Ls) + 0.6 Lv,      involving stagger

Lv - the lesser of (Fy/Fu).Lgv and Lnv
Lt - net failure path length normal to force due to direct tension
Ls - net failure path length inclined to force
Lgv - gross failure path length parallel to force
Lnv - net failure path length parallel to force

Design Rupture Strength:

Tension Rupture Strength for Welded Connection: (Eq. E2.7-1)

fRn = f.Fu.Ae= 0.5 Fu.Ae

Tension Rupture Strength for Bolted Connection: (Eq. E3.2-1)

fRn = f.Fu.Ae= 0.55 Fu.Ae Reference: AISI S100-2007

Combined Bending and Tension C5.1.2

1).        Mfx / (fb .Mnxt)+ Mfy / (fb .Mnyt) + Tf / (ft. Tn) < = 1.0

2).        Mfx / (fb .Mnx)+ Mfy / (fb .Mny) - Tf / (ft. Tn) < = 1.0

Mfx - factored moment about axis X
Mfy - factored moment about axis Y
Tf - factored shear force

Mnxt = Sftx . Fy - Nominal flexural strength about axis X
Mnyt = Sfty . Fy - Nominal flexural strength about axis Y
Sftx - Section modulus of full unreduced section relative to extreme tension fibre about axis X
Sfty - Section modulus of full unreduced section relative to extreme tension fibre about axis Y

Mnx - Nominal flexural strength about axis X
Mny - Nominal flexural strength about axis Y
Tn - Nominal tensile strength

fb = 0.9 - resistance factor for bending
ft = 0.9 - resistance factor for shear